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KISAN Comfort, an underfloor heating system, is fully made from components manufactured in Poland.

Underfloor heating is a low-temperature heating system, where 70% of heat energy is transferred through radiation and as low as 30% through convection. This heating system ensures the feeling of thermal comfort as the warmth is evenly dispersed and diffuses gently throughout the space, from its floor to the ceiling (we feel pleasant warmth through our feet on the floor and optimum temperature at the head level).

Underfloor heating is used in:

-    housing construction, in particular single family homes
-    public buildings: hotels, banks, etc.
-    industrial buildings,
-    other buildings: shops, warehouses, swimming pools, etc.

Advantages of underfloor heating in the KISAN system

a)    Room temperature distribution is close to the optimum one (see Figure 1),

b)    No radiators in the room and full flexibility with interior design,

c)    Pleasant feeling of thermal comfort,

d)    Less dust in the air (due to limited convection),

e)    Better noise damping owing to the use of an insulating layer,

f)    Reduced air dry-up,

g)    Lower temperatures of the heating medium (max. 55°C) are advantageous in technical terms,

h)    Energy savings due to the low temperatures of the heating medium and the optimum location of the heat source in the room – savings of up to 20% as compared to the traditional heating system (radiators),

i)    Can be combined with the traditional central heating system,

j)    No corrosion or boiler scale build-up,

k)    KISAN pipes are easy to install (they have no elastic memory and are cold formed),

l)    Heating loop can be made from one pipe section with no need of connection,

m)    The KISAN system pipes are diffusion tight (due to the aluminium layer on the pipe wall, oxygen does not penetrate the system water) while meeting the requirements of PN-EN ISO 21003-2 “Composite piping systems for cold and hot water installations inside buildings – Pipes.”

n)    At least 50-year service life of piping comprised of KISAN pipes,

o)    Possibility of using non-conventional low-temperature and environmentally friendly heat sources such as heat pumps, solar collectors or waste heat from processes.

Underfloor heating - conditions of use

a)    Reduced heat output – the underfloor heating system does not satisfy heat demand in rooms with high heat losses (more than 80 W/m2) or with limited heating area; in such cases, an additional heating system needs to be installed,

b)    The underfloor heating system is characterized by considerable thermal inertia – which causes slower reaction to control than in case of the traditional system,

c)    Limitations on the use of floor linings – due to thermal conductivity, not every floor finishing can be used.

Self-regulating effect

The impact of temporary heat gains is partially limited by the self-regulation effect of the underfloor heating system. As the room temperature rises the difference between the floor and air temperatures drops leading to a decrease in the heat flow given off by the floor. For example, when the starting temperature in the room is 20°C, with the air temperature increase by 2°C, the heat flow transferred to the room will decrease by one third.

Design, requirements

At all times, installation of an underfloor heating system should be preceded by development of the system’s technical design, which should include:

- heat loss calculations for individual rooms,
- design parameters for the system operation,
- underfloor heating loop configuration, specifying pipe spacing and loop length,
- types and specification of piping materials,
- type and thickness of thermal insulation,
- recommendations (guidelines) on installation and regulation of the system.

Working conditions of the underfloor heating system

Floor temperature

PN-EN 1264 standard for underfloor heating systems precisely defines maximum floor temperatures depending on the type of room:
- 29°C in permanently occupied zones (living quarters and office areas),
- 35°C in perimeter zone,
- 33°C in kitchens and bathrooms,
- 27°C in working spaces where people work in a standing position.

The optimum temperature is 24–26°C.

When calculating underfloor heating, it should be checked whether the permissible floor temperature is maintained for the selected pipe spacing. In fact, in underfloor heating operating conditions, floor temperature is significantly lower than the calculated one.

Working parameters of an underfloor heating system

The heating system design should provide for the following characteristic working parameters of the heating system:

The maximum temperature of the heating medium in pipes should not exceed 55°C.

- The temperature difference between the feed and return sides is Δt = 5÷10°K;
- Water flow rate in heating lines is 0.1 – 0.6 m/s;
- Heating circuit lengths should be as follows: for Ø 14 mm pipe < 80 m, for Ø 16 mm pipe <      120 m, and for Ø 20 mm pipe < 150 m;
- It is assumed that the amount of heat transferred to the heated room should be not smaller than 90% of the heat delivered by heating pipes;
- Approximate heat output of the floor is 80 W/m2 at the room temperature of 20°C.

Conditions to be met by buildings/ space with underfloor heating

Building condition before the system is installed  

The following works must be completed in the building prior to installation of the underfloor heating:

-    External windows and doors mounted;
-    Wiring systems and sanitary drainage systems installed;  acceptance procedure completed;
-    Chases bricked up (closed);
-    Plastering and stucco works completed;
-    Redundant construction materials removed;
-    Floor bases, on which thermal insulation (foamed polystyrene) will be laid, should be cleaned, and every irregularity resulting from plastering should be removed as this can make it difficult to lay down foamed polystyrene boards. Floor base irregularities should not exceed 2-3 mm per 1 metre and 5-8 mm along the whole length of the room;
-    The building should be equipped with a heating system ensuring internal temperature of min. 5°C; if there is no heating in the building and the underfloor heating system is filled with water, it can be damaged due to water freezing.  In such situations, water should be removed from the system; the underfloor heating system can be fully emptied from water by air-blowing technique;
-    If a heating manifold freezes as a result of the room temperature dropping below 0°C, feed and return pipe ends will be exposed to serious danger.

Heat losses

Underfloor heating is used in the housing construction and public buildings. In order to determine if underfloor heating can be used in a given space as the basic heat source, the floor heat output should be assumed to be up to 80 W/m2. The design heat load is calculated according to PN-EN 12831: 2006.

Thermal insulation

PN-EN 1264 standard for underfloor heating systems defines minimum thermal insulation resistance for underfloor heating panels depending on the type and situation of a given space.

Wartości minimalnych oporów przewodnictwa cieplnego według normy PN-EN 1264



Space Situation in a building Required minimum thermal resistance R [m2K/W]
I Space below is heated 0,75
II Space below is heated unevenly
III Space above heated space  1,25
IV Space above a passage


V Space on the ground  1,25


Thermal insulation can be made from EPS 100 high hardness styrofoam boards with the minimum density of 20 kg/m3 – according to PN-EN 13163 “Thermal insulation products for buildings. Factory made products of expanded polystyrene (EPS). Specification”. Mineral wool stiffened with resins can also be used as thermal insulation. In order to protect thermal insulation against accumulation of moisture, it should be covered with a course of polyethylene sheeting with reflective layer (Al).

When installing under floor heating on the ground, polyethylene damp proof membrane is also necessary under the thermal insulation. In wet spaces, e.g. bathrooms one more damp proof membrane can be used to protect the under floor heating system from flooding with water.

The following items are available in the KISAN Comfort system offer:

-    EPS100 styrofoam 30 and 50 mm thick, factory covered with metal coated film placed inside and working as thermal screen. Styrofoam boards are cut into strips, which allows for rolling them up and facilitate their transport and the installation of insulation. A grid having 5 cm and 10 cm square mesh patterns is printed on the film, which enables heating pipes to be precisely positioned.
-    EPS100 grooved boards 3.2 cm thick with projections 2.8 cm high designed for dry underfloor heating systems; possible spaces during installation: 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm.

Thermal insulation also damps noise.

Floor construction in underfloor heating

The floor as a heating surface laid on a horizontal structure consists of the following layers:

- thermal insulation,
- damp proof membrane,
- heating plate with pipes,
- floor finish (wet or dry floor screed).

Underfloor heating cross-section above a heated space





1.    Wall
2.    Plaster
3.    Floor finish
4.    Concrete screed
5.    Edge insulation
6.    KISAN composite pipe
7.    Pipe holder
8.    Damp proof membrane (polyethylene sheeting)
9.    Thermal insulation
10.    Flooring slab





Underfloor heating cross-section above a heated space


Underfloor heating cross-section above an unheated space





1.    Wall
2.    Plaster
3.    Floor finish
4.    Concrete screed
5.    Edge insulation
6.    KISAN composite pipe
7.    Pipe holder
8.    Damp proof membrane (polyethylene sheeting)
9.    Thermal insulation
10.    Flooring slab





Underfloor heating cross-section above an unheated space


Cross-section of underfloor heating on the ground




1.    Wall
2.    Plaster
3.    Floor finish
4.    Concrete screed
5.    Edge insulation
6.    KISAN composite pipe
7.    Pipe holder
8.    Damp proof membrane (polyethylene sheeting)
9.    Thermal insulation
10.    Sub floor (e.g. sand + fired clay pebbles + concrete screed)
11.    Damp proof membrane





Cross-section of underfloor heating on the ground


Underfloor heating cross-section in a space with high operational loads




1.    Wall
2.    Plaster
3.    Floor finish
4.    Concrete screed
5.    Edge insulation
6.    KISAN composite pipe
7.    Pipe fastening
8.    Damp proof membrane (polyethylene sheeting)
9.    Thermal insulation
10.    Flooring slab
11.    Steel bars/ wire mesh reinforcement





Underfloor heating cross-section in a space with high operational loads


Requirements for materials used in the construction industry

Article 10 of the Building Law of July 7, 1994 (Polish Journal of Laws No. 89 of August 25, 1994) as amended (Polish Journal of Laws No. 80 of March 27, 2003) stipulates:

“...1. When performing construction works, building products with such functional properties should only be used that enable properly designed and constructed civil structures to meet the basic requirements, as defined in Article 5, section 5, item 1 – such products should be authorised to be sold in the market and widely or individually used in the construction industry.
2. The following products are considered as the products authorised to be sold in the market and widely used in the construction industry:
1) Building products, properly marked, where, in accordance with separate regulations:
a) a certificate for the safety mark was issued to confirm that conformity with technical criteria defined according to the Polish Standards, technical approvals and relevant building codes and technical documents was ensured with respect to the products covered by the certification process,
b) the evaluation of conformity was made and the certificate or declaration of conformity with the relevant Polish Standard or technical approval was issued with respect to the products not covered by the certification process in letter a) and having a substantial impact on the meeting of at least one of the basic requirements.
2) Building products named on the list of products having no substantial impact on compliance with the  basic requirements and building products manufactured according to the traditionally accepted principles of good building practice...”

The above requirements are met by the products being the components of the KISAN underfloor heating system with such technical and functional performance as described in the technical approvals issued by the Building Research Institute:

-  Composite pipes “Multilayer Pipes-Kisan-SKS Kańczuga”,
- Composite pipe couplings “Multilayer Pipes-Kisan-SKS Kańczuga”,
- Brass heating manifolds.

The technical approvals are confirmed by the manufacturers’ declarations of conformity. Delivered together with piping materials, the manufacturers’ declarations of conformity are, in accordance with the applicable regulations, the basis for any pre-operational inspection of underfloor heating systems.

Requirements for materials used in underfloor heating systems

Due to the underfloor heating system’s construction, service life of the system should not be shorter   than that of the building, i.e. about 50 years, since any replacement of the floor heating system during the building’s use period is very onerous and involves considerable financial outlays. Due to that, the materials used must meet special quality requirements such as:

- service life more than 50 years,
- oxygen tightness,
- significant tensile strength.

High requirements must be met by all the components of underfloor heating, including also the materials used for producing the heating panel and thermal insulation. When installing an underfloor heating system, certified materials should be used with quality ensuring the system’s failure-free operation in the periods between the heavy repairs of the building.

Requirements for materials used for floor finishes (flooring materials)

Finishing claddings used on underfloor heating systems should meet the requirements of PN-EN 1264 standard.

They must meet the basic condition of maximum thermal resistance:

Rλ of cladding < 0.15 [m2K/W]


It is recommended that natural stones (granite, marble, ceramic tiles, etc.) be used. It is also possible to use parquets of up to 10 mm thick with the parquet’s average humidity being not higher than 8% ± 2%.

Additional restrictions are related to:

-  laminate flooring panels,
- flexible floor linings (e.g. PVC),
- carpet floorings,
- parquet adhesives,
- parquet varnishes.

The above mentioned materials must be producer certified for application in underfloor heating systems with respect to emission of harmful substances at a higher temperature of use.

Floor finish type
Terra cotta (10 mm thick),
marble, natural stone
(25 mm thick),
PVC tiles
Thin parquet
(8-10 mm thick),
laminate flooring panels
Carpet (5 mm thick)
Rλ [m2K/W] 0,02 0,05 0,09


Edge insulation (thermal, noise insulation and expansion joints)

 Edge insulation separates the heating panel from vertical and structural space dividers and partitions. It performs the following functions:

- fills expansion joints to compensate for the heating panel’s thermal expansion, according to DIN 18560; edge insulation must be able to compensate for screed expansions of up to 5 mm,
- reduces the heating panel’s heat losses through the building’s walls,
- operates as noise insulation between structural members.

Edge insulation strip is made from a wall tape (polyurethane foam 8 mm thick and 150 mm high) to which polyethylene sheeting is attached.

After putting on a thermal insulation component, the polyethylene sheeting prevents the concrete from penetrating the gap between the wall and a thermal insulation board when mortar layer is poured. The protruding part of edge insulation is cut off only after floor lining has been laid.

When making expansion joints, expansion joint profiles are used with properties similar to those of edge insulation.